By G. C. Peden
This ebook integrates approach, expertise and economics and provides a brand new method of taking a look at twentieth-century army background and Britain's decline as a superb energy. G. C. Peden explores how from the Edwardian period to the Nineteen Sixties war used to be reworked by way of a sequence of suggestions, together with dreadnoughts, submarines, plane, tanks, radar, nuclear guns and guided missiles. He exhibits that the price of those new guns tended to upward thrust extra speedy than nationwide source of revenue and argues that technique needed to be tailored to take account of either the elevated efficiency of recent guns and the economy's diminishing skill to maintain defense force of a given dimension. sooner than the advance of nuclear guns, British technique was once according to a capability to wear out an enemy via blockade, attrition (in the 1st international warfare) and strategic bombing (in the Second), and hence strength rested as a lot on fiscal power as on armaments.
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Additional info for Arms, Economics and British Strategy: From Dreadnoughts to Hydrogen Bombs (Cambridge Military Histories)
Increased size enabled them to escort the battle fleet in the North Sea, and to attack the enemy fleet with torpedoes. When the first submarines – of an American design – were introduced into the Royal Navy in 1902, they were regarded as defensive weapons, but by 1910 British firms had produced craft capable of offensive operations off the German coast. Britain adopted the submarine four years before Germany and had about twice as many in service as the Germans in 1914. If anything, the Royal Navy was too willing to invest in untried technology.
An apparent exception was Sir Warren Fisher, permanent secretary of the 36 Robert J. ), Economics and National Security, pp. 261–83. 37 It was not only normal, but right, that policymakers should, in the first instance, see problems from the perspective of their own department, but it was important to have effective ways of co-ordinating the different departments’ activities to serve an agreed strategy. The methods adopted to achieve such cooperation developed over time, but even in the 1960s strategy was strongly influenced by inter-service rivalries.
5 million in 1908/9 to £163 million in 1913/14, making it possible to finance both naval expansion and social reform within balanced budgets. 49 Budgetary pressures on Admiralty expenditure were greatest from 1905 to 1908. In April 1904 Austen Chamberlain warned the Cabinet that ‘the time has come when we must frankly admit that the financial resources of the United Kingdom are inadequate to do all that we should desire to do in the matter of Imperial defence’. 50 Fisher’s response to this challenge was to have 154 obsolete ships removed from the effective list.