By Gwyn Harries-Jenkins
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Extra info for Armed Forces and the Welfare Societies: Challenges in the 1980s: Britain, the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden and the United States
Assuming that the defence sector is efficient, the military production function shows the input, and hence the cost, implications of different quantities of defence. Technical progress complicates the analysis by causing shifts in the production function. The benefits calculus is particularly difficult since it requires society to make judgements about the valuation of human lives (protection) in a situation where individuals are unable to express a preference for different amounts of defence (that is, limitations of the voting system), where there are incentives to 'free ride' under a defence 'umbrella', and where difficulties arise in any government trying to aggregate individual preferences into society's welfare function.
Service pensions b. g. g. some of those for other support were omitted; similarly some minor sub-programmes were excluded, as were those where comparisons with 1966-7 were not possible. ) and Polaris in 1966-7; Polaris only for 1977-80. SOURCES Annual Statement on the Defence Estimates (London: HMSO). 28 Armed Forces and the Welfare Societies Since 1966, there has been a substantial rise in the share of the defence budget allocated to European theatre ground forces (NATO). Destroyers, frigates and submarines have become relatively more important within the navy, as have strike aircraft within the airforce.
Estimated cost of maintaining 1978 force level (320 7(0) assuming trend growth in expenditure per annum: (a) Forecast expenditure in 1986 (b) Forecast expenditure in 1990 fm (1979 prices) 7824 9074 9 116-93 10 305 (± 5(0) 11 150 (± 5(0) Manpower (OOOs) 5. Estimated force levels in 1990, assuming budgets constraints of: (a) £10 815 m. (b) £ 9270 m. (c) £ 8500 m. (d) £ 7 725 m. (e) £ 6500 m. 9 (± 12) (i) The trends through peaks method was a linear projection based on peak expenditures in 1953, 1967 and 1976.