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Advancing the Science of Climate Change (America's Climate by Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, National Research

By Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, National Research Council, America's Climate Choices: Panel on Advancing the Science of
Climate Change, Division on Earth and Life Studies

Weather switch is going on, is prompted principally through human actions, and poses major dangers for--and in lots of situations is already affecting--a vast diversity of human and average structures. The compelling case for those conclusions is equipped in Advancing the technological know-how of weather switch, a part of a congressionally asked suite of reports referred to as America's weather offerings. whereas noting that there's consistently extra to benefit and that the medical technique isn't closed, the publication indicates that hypotheses approximately weather swap are supported by means of a number of traces of proof and feature stood enterprise within the face of great debate and cautious overview of different reasons. As choice makers reply to those hazards, the nation's medical firm can give a contribution via study that improves knowing of the motives and outcomes of weather switch and likewise turns out to be useful to determination makers on the neighborhood, neighborhood, nationwide, and overseas degrees. The publication identifies judgements being made in 12 sectors, starting from agriculture to transportation, to spot judgements being made according to weather switch. Advancing the technological know-how of weather switch demands a unmarried federal entity or application to coordinate a countrywide, multidisciplinary examine attempt geared toward enhancing either realizing and responses to weather swap. Seven cross-cutting examine subject matters are pointed out to help this medical firm. additionally, leaders of federal weather examine may still redouble efforts to set up a finished weather staring at procedure, increase weather types and different analytical instruments, put money into human capital, and enhance linkages among study and judgements via forming partnerships with action-oriented courses.

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It may also imply a need to change scientific practices, with scientists working more closely with decision makers to improve the scientific decision support that researchers can offer. However, even with this decision focus, scientific knowledge cannot by itself specify or determine any choice. It cannot tell decision makers what they should do; their responsibilities, preferences, and values also influence their decisions. Science can inform decisions by describing the potential consequences of different choices, and it can contribute by improving or expanding available options, but it cannot say what actions are required or preferred.

Uncertainty in Scientific Knowledge From a philosophical perspective, science never proves anything—in the manner that mathematics or other formal logical systems prove things—because science is fundamentally based on observations. Any scientific theory is thus, in principle, subject to being refined or overturned by new observations. In practical terms, however, scientific uncertainties are not all the same. Some scientific conclusions or theories have been so thoroughly examined and tested, and supported by so many independent observa- 21 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences.

This report recognizes the need for scientific research to both improve understanding of climate changes and assist in decision making related to climate change. In categorizing these types of scientific research, we found that terms such as “pure,”“basic,”“applied,” and “curiosity driven” have different definitions across communities, are as likely to cause  A co-benefit refers to an additional benefit resulting from an action undertaken to achieve a particular purpose, but that is not directly related to that purpose.

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