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Additional resources for Advances in space science and technology. Volume 8
J. H. MC CALL V. The Systematization of Lunar Crater and Lineament Patterns Modern advances in telescopy and telescopic photography have led to the rejection of one of Gilbert's conclusions [ 1 ] : we can nowadays virtually discount the possibility that the overlap patterns of lunar cratering reflect nothing more than fortuitous coincidence of superimposed impact craters. The case against random superimposition may be argued on the basis of the following three points: (1) Minor craterlets frequently overlap large ones, but the reverse relationship is rarely seen on the lunar surface.
These nicks are difficult to separate from what Spurr  called "beaks of subsidence" (Fig. 6 ) . Though Fielder  notes that some such beaks have a positive topographic reflection, this is easily explained by recourse to the idea of late eruption concentrated within the area of the "beak of subsidence"; it is doubtful that any very complex argument is required to explain these beaks. A terrestrial caldera, Kilombe caldera, in Kenya  (Fig. 12) shows sector-graben extremely similar to the lunar beaks, and these are simply due to complication of the caldera pattern by regional linear trends.
2, 3, 7 ) . Craters are observed which are usually elongated and consist of walls made up of disconnected septa arranged in a parallel fashion, overlapping one another and enclosing a central depressed area. The ends of the crater are open and the crater is nothing more than a subsided area enclosed by a system of overlapping ridges, reflecting linear faults. The effect of a cirque is 32 G. J. H. MC CALL FIG. 6. The area of Copernicus (right) and Eratosthenes (left) shows large craters rising from areas little affected b y linear fractures.