By Vojkan Vidojkovic, J. van der Tang, Arjan Leeuwenburgh, Arthur H.M. van Roermund
This ebook investigates ideas, merits, barriers, and prices linked to multi-standard operation of RF front-ends and their skill to conform to variable radio environments. subsequent, it highlights the optimization of RF front-ends to permit greatest functionality inside of a definite energy finances, whereas concentrating on complete integration. ultimately, the ebook investigates chances for low-voltage, low-power circuit topologies in CMOS expertise.
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Extra info for Adaptive Multi-Standard RF Front-Ends (Analog Circuits and Signal Processing)
Therefore, the LO signal can appear at the inputs of the mixer and the LNA. This effect is called LO leakage. It depends on capacitive and substrate coupling. Also, the antenna can pick up the signal radiated by the LO. These two effects are presented in Fig. 30. In both cases (LO leakage and LO radiation) an unwanted signal will be present at the RF port of the mixer. It is mixed with the LO signal producing DC 46 CHAPTER 2. 30 LO leakage and LO radiation component. DC-offsets can be time varying.
37) fc is the filter center frequency and B is the filter bandwidth. In order to have an estimation for the Q of the RFF, it is calculated for the DECT system. Based on the DECT blocking performance , B of the RFF has to be around 30 MHz in order to suppress the strongest out-of-band interferers. 9 GHz. 37), it follows that Q of the RFF is around 60. An RFF with such a Q and fc cannot be integrated and discrete solutions have to be used  (for example Surface Acoustic Wave filters (SAW)1 ).
After that, the signal frequency should be reduced applying frequency down-conversion. It is performed by a complex mixer. The complex mixer is followed by a complex filter and an amplifier. The complex filter rejects image signal and reduces the dynamic range that the ADC has to handle, while amplifier sets a proper level of a down-converted signal before it reaches the ADC. The generic front-end architecture is presented in Fig. 15. It is a full complex, two path front-end architecture. In general, signals are down-converted, filtered and amplified n times before they are converted into the digital domain.